Detailed sourcing data
We’re pleased to share our wood sourcing data to increase transparency about our supply chain.
Enviva wood supply map
Choose a supply area to explore harvests Enviva sourced from during the time period spanning July through December 2019. Hover over points to view harvest details. Please note that the information and data contained on the following web page is for general information purposes only and may not be reproduced, copied, sold, excerpted or removed without prior written consent from Enviva.
Percent Volume to Enviva is marked as “N/A” for tracts from which volume was delivered to Enviva as part of a thinning or post-harvest site preparation operation. Thinning and site preparation harvests are not final harvests, but rather forest management practices intended to encourage sawtimber growth or to facilitate replanting following a harvest operation for higher-quality products that did not fully clear the site of low-quality material. In addition, especially around our Cottondale facility, Enviva occasionally receives volume from “understocked” tracts. On these tracts, regeneration conditions have not been adequate to produce an economically desirable volume of high-quality sawtimber and so clearing is necessary to allow for replanting to occur. For more discussion on this topic, please view our Voices of Enviva blog post: “Merchandising volume reflects regional variation.” Percent volume to Enviva for these understocked tracts is marked as “N/A” because the harvest is not the result of a traditional sawtimber operation. As with all of the other wood we purchase, the wood from these thinning, site preparation, and understocked harvests is low-grade roundwood and/ or other chipped harvest residues. Though Percent Volume to Enviva is labeled as “N/A,” these tracts are included on the Wood Supply Map and factored into all of the summary statistics presented here.
To maintain the privacy of Enviva’s suppliers and landowners, the points are placed in the vicinity of the harvest, but not the precise location of the forest. Due to agreements with a subset of suppliers prohibiting mapped display of harvest information, a small subset of forest tracts (comprising ~ 1% of total fiber supply) are not displayed on this map. Volume data from these harvests are still included in summary statistics.
We now collect information at the stand level. In some cases, a tract may have more than one stand. To illustrate this, we are showing up to two stands of information in the dialog box. The first value for each field corresponds to the first stand. The second value for each field corresponds to the second stand. While we only display two stands here, all multiple stand characteristics were factored into our calculations for each of our metrics presented on the website, but are not shown here because there is not enough space in the hover box.
31% Mixed Pine & Hardwood Forests
The canopy of mixed pine & hardwood forests contains both pine and hardwood trees, and are typically established through natural regeneration instead of planting. This type of forest occurs on the Southern landscape less frequently than pine-only forest types and are often a result of hands-off forest management practices.
At maturity, the forest contains mostly large-diameter trees of both pine and hardwood species with smaller, lower-quality trees growing in the understory. These forests are generally harvested during a final harvest cut, where the stems of sawtimber trees are sold to sawmills to make higher-grade solid wood products like furniture and lumber. The tops and branches of sawtimber trees and the lower-quality understory trees cannot be made into solid wood products, but need to be removed from the forest so the next rotation of sawtimber can begin growing. These lower-quality products are sold to consumers like Enviva.
18% Pine Forests
Pine forests contain mostly pine trees that are grown to produce pine sawtimber. These forests are usually planted and managed for increased productivity and to prevent the growth of non-pine species.
These forests are generally ‘thinned’ about halfway through their growth cycle, meaning that some trees are removed to create more room for remaining trees to grow to sawtimber size and quality. These thinned trees are sold to consumers of lower-grade wood like Enviva. When the forest reaches maturity and is harvested, the stems of sawtimber trees are sold to sawmills that make higher-grade solid wood products like lumber. The tops and branches of sawtimber trees and any poor-quality trees that cannot be made into solid wood products are sent to consumers of lower-grade wood like Enviva.
26% Pine Forests with Hardwood Understory
The canopy of pine forests with hardwood understory contains pine trees that are primarily grown to produce pine sawtimber. These forests also contain low-quality hardwood understory and are either manually planted to pine or naturally seeded. Hardwood growth happens naturally through root and seed propagation.
At maturity, the forest contains mostly straight, large-diameter pine trees with smaller, lower-quality hardwood trees growing underneath. When the forest is harvested, the stems of sawtimber trees are sold to sawmills that make higher-grade solid wood products like lumber. The tops and branches of sawtimber trees and the crooked hardwood trees from below cannot be made into solid wood products, but need to be removed from the forest so the next rotation of pine sawtimber can begin growing. These harvest byproducts are sold to consumers like Enviva.
17% Mill & Industry Residues
Mill and industry residues are comprised of sawdust, wood shavings, and other material produced as a waste product during sawmilling and other wood processing.
4% Other Hardwood Forests
Other hardwood forests are forests in upland areas containing mostly hardwood trees that are grown to produce hardwood sawtimber, or any forest of the hardwood type that does not fit the definition of bottomland hardwood.
At maturity, these forests contain mostly large-diameter oak, poplar, and hickory hardwood sawtimber trees with smaller, lower-quality hardwood trees growing underneath. When the forest is harvested, the stems of sawtimber trees are sold to sawmills that make higher-grade solid wood products like furniture. The tops and branches of sawtimber trees and the lower-value hardwood trees from below cannot be made into solid wood products, but need to be removed from the site so the next generation of the forest can begin growing. These harvest byproducts are sold to consumers of lower-grade wood like Enviva.
4% Bottomland Hardwood Forests
Bottomland hardwood forests in lowland areas and floodplains containing mostly large-diameter oak, gum, and cypress sawtimber trees with smaller, lower-quality hardwood trees growing underneath.
When the forest is harvested, the stems of sawtimber trees are sold to sawmills that make higher-grade solid wood products like furniture. The tops and branches of sawtimber trees and the lower-quality hardwood trees from below cannot be made into solid wood products, but need to be removed from the site so the next generation of the forest can begin growing. These harvest byproducts are sold to consumer of lower-grade wood like Enviva.
The majority of bottomland hardwood forests are working lands that require active management in order to maintain forest health, but some are sensitive habitats of High Conservation Value (HCV) that should be conserved. Enviva is committed to not taking wood from HCV bottomlands. To learn about how Enviva makes bottomland hardwood forests sourcing decisions, visit our Responsible Wood Supply Program page.
<1% Landscaping and Arboricultural Residues
Landscaping and arboricultural residues include wood derived from landscaping and urban tree maintenance.
The Chesapeake region includes the Ahoskie, Northampton, and Southampton mills.
Mixed Pine and Hardwood 41% Pine with Hardwood Understory 28% Pine Forests 4% Mill & Industry Residues 13% Bottomland Hardwood 7% Other Hardwood 7%
The Wilmington region includes the Sampson, Greenwood, and Hamlet mills.*
Mixed Pine and Hardwood 32% Pine with Hardwood Understory 33% Pine Forests 27% Mill & Industry Residues 3% Other Hardwood 2% Bottomland Hardwood 2%
*During this reporting period, our newly built Hamlet mill was ramping up while we were implementing its Track & Trace program. Because of this, less than 1% of our enterprise-wide volume is from locations not within our Track & Trace database. Currently, Hamlet mill is fully implementing Track & Trace data collection procedures, and subsequent updates will present Hamlet sourcing data in full.
The Southeast region includes the Amory and Cottondale mills.
Mixed Pine and Hardwood 11% Pine with Hardwood Understory 15% Pine Forests 26% Mill & Industry Residues 45% Bottomland Hardwood <1% Other Hardwood 3% Landscaping and Arboricultural Residues <1%
Track & Trace
Data & Methods
The sections below describe in detail the data sources and methods used to generate the maps and other summary statistics presented throughout each section of the Track & Trace® website:
Forest Trend Map Data Sources & Methods
Map Data Source: FIA
The data displayed on the Forest Trend Map page are from the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program for the inventory time periods covering 2000 through 2018. The summary charts below the map show estimates of total forest area (in acres) and forest growing stock inventory, or the volume of live trees above 5 inches in diameter at breast height growing in the forest (in cubic feet). The forest area data were also used to fill each county on the map with varying shades of green according to the total percentage of the county area covered in forest.
The FIA program collects data on U.S. forest extent and conditions using field measurements gathered from a fixed set of field plots throughout the country. The program maintains one field plot site for every 6,000 acres, and 15-20 percent of the plots are revisited every year. This means that the “2018” annual inventory data, for example, might represent plot measurements collected during the 2013-2018 survey cycle. However, because inventory changes slowly, small differences in measurement years are usually insignificant.
Filling in FIA Data Gaps
Because the FIA annual inventory system was not fully implemented until recently, there are occasional years for individual states where data are missing or incomplete. For years within the time frame of this analysis (2000-2018) for which there are no FIA data available, data from the most recent adjacent year in that state are substituted. The table below shows where substitutions were made, with a “×” noting years for which concurrent inventory data are available. For years where concurrent inventory data are not available, the substitute data year that was used as proxy is listed.
AL AR FL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN VA WV 2000 × 2005 2004 × 2004 2008 2006 2002 2001 × 2001 × 2001 × 2005 2004 × 2004 2008 2006 2002 × × × 2000 2002 × 2005 2004 × 2004 2008 2006 × × × × 2000 2003 × 2005 2004 × 2004 2008 2006 × × × × 2000 2004 × 2005 × × × 2008 2006 × × × 2003 × 2005 × × 2004 × × 2008 2006 × × × × × 2006 × × 2004 × × 2008 × × × × × × 2007 × × × × × 2008 2006 × × × × × 2008 × × 2007 × × × 2006 2007 × × × × 2009 × × × × × × × × × × × × 2010 × × × × × × × × × × × × 2011 × × × × × × × × × × × × 2012 × × × × × × × × × × × × 2013 × × × × × × × × × × × × 2014 × × × × × × × × × × × × 2015 × × × × × × × × × × × × 2016 × × × × × × × × × × × × 2017 × × 2016 × 2016 2016 × × × 2016 × × 2018 × × 2016 2017 2016 2016 × × × 2016 2017 ×
Track & Trace Data Sources & Methods
T&T Data Collection
When Enviva is contacted by a supplier who is interested in setting up a contract to sell wood from a new harvest tract, we first determine whether the tract meets the Responsible Sourcing requirements. If we decide to move forward with the purchase, suppliers submit a questionnaire with data on forest and harvest characteristics and the tract is entered in the Track & Trace (T&T) database.
In 2018, Enviva embarked on the first major review and revision of its T&T program, which was implemented on January 1st, 2019. Throughout the process, we consulted our suppliers, field staff, and external experts in the revision of our T&T harvest questionnaire and data collection procedures. Specific improvements to the questionnaire include refined definitions and guidance, an option to add details for multiple forest stands, and new questions on stand establishment, regeneration, timber stocking level, and management history. We also added procedures for monitoring our tract information and checking for accuracy. We check that all questions on our questionnaire have been answered, and that we receive a map for each tract set up in our database. We also use remote sensing data to check that the location, size, and forest cover type information is correct.
Explanation of fields on our questionnaire
The details we collect from the supplier include:
Definitions of fields on our questionnaire
Tract and Stand:
Establishment and Regeneration:
Forest Cover Type:
All of these details are entered into the database, and a unique ID number is generated for the tract.
At Amory, approximately 85% of the wood is purchased from sawmills and other wood processing facilities. The 15% of the wood that is delivered from the forest comes from one supplier, and so the T&T program is not deployed in the same way in this supply area. Instead of entering individual harvest tracts in the T&T database, Amory’s forestry team receives regular updates from the supplier on the forest type, harvest type, and age class of the forests from which the wood was sourced.
T&T Data Monitoring & Validation
Tract information that was entered into the T&T database is checked for accuracy during our desktop monitoring. We use remote sensing data to monitor harvest location, acreage, and forest cover type, and we also check for data inconsistencies. This monitoring is our first assessment of the data’s accuracy.
Enviva foresters audit a subset of the tracts in the database while the harvest is active to verify the information entered into the T&T database and ensure the logging crew has the training credentials required in our contracts. A further subset of tracts are visited upon completion of the harvest to collect additional T&T information, including an assessment of the logging crew’s adherence to soil and water quality Best Management Practices (BMPs).
The T&T procedures are subject to auditing throughout the year, as data from the T&T program provide evidence for Enviva’s third-party forestry and sustainability certifications. In addition, we are working with a third party to develop a Track & Trace standard and build procedures for auditing our data for accuracy. Refer to our Responsible Sourcing Policy page for mid and end-of-year progress updates on this work.
T&T Data Display
A small subset of tracts that make up less than 5% of total wood supply are not included in the mapped database because of agreements with suppliers prohibiting the mapped display of harvest data. Enviva collects summary T&T data from these forests and includes them in feedstock origin summaries.
The Wood Supply Map displays the tracts entered into the T&T database during the reporting period as point data.
When the user hovers over a point on the map, detailed information on that harvest from the T&T database is displayed, including the county of origin, forest type, harvest type, landowner type, dominant forest age class, tract size, the estimated percentage of the total harvest volume that is sold to Enviva, and the tract’s certification status.
Preserving Supplier Confidentiality
To maintain the privacy of Enviva’s suppliers and landowners, tract points are located in the vicinity, but not the precise location, of the harvest. The tract GPS coordinates are fuzzed for security, and then altered again randomly to within 10 miles of their original location each time they are rendered in the map tool.
Infographic Data Sources & Methods
FIA Data for Southeast Forest Characterization
The information presented in the infographic on the T&T introductory page regarding the southeastern United States is derived from the FIA data described above. Here, we report the estimated increase in forested area and timber inventory since Enviva opened its first mill in 2011. The FIA supply area boundary for each of Enviva’s regions is determined according to the county and state locations of tracts entered into the T&T database since 2016,
T&T Data for Summary Statistics
The T&T database provides the summary statistics displayed on the T&T introductory page and below the Wood Supply Map, including the number of tracts Enviva sourced from, states and counties where those tracts were located, average tract age, and average percentage of the total volume of wood from final harvests sent to Enviva.
The unique tract ID number that is generated when a harvest is entered into the T&T database is also recorded whenever a load of wood is delivered to a mill from that specific harvest. This enables us to keep track of how much wood each of Enviva’s mills receives from each harvest and analyze Enviva’s feedstock sources by volume. The volume-based analysis provides summary statistics displayed on the T&T introductory page and below the Wood Supply Map, including the percentage of hardwood and pine feedstocks received and the percentage of wood delivered from each origin, i.e. forest type, sawmills, and/or wood processing facilities.
In addition, our sourcing has changed such that we sometimes receive material from chip mills or other mills that are considered to be non-typical primary suppliers. In these cases, we set tracts up in the database, and work with the supplier to receive volume information from those tracts to their mill, so that we may attribute our volume received to those tracts for the derivation of our feedstock sourcing figures.
With the update of the forest cover types on our questionnaire in 2019, we’re now presenting additional forest types in the sourcing infographic on the T&T landing page. Since we are still receiving volumes from tracts entered into our database prior to the revision (prior to January 1st, 2019), and are also receiving volumes from tracts entered since that date, we’ve re-categorized old types to fit into the new forest type categories. For example, in 2018 we would have called a forest “southern yellow pine”, but after this revision, we now call that “Pine Forests”. In the future, volumes received from prior to January 1st, 2019 tracts will phase out, and we will not need to re-categorize any of our forest cover types.
Learn more about our 2019 Track & Trace system improvements at our Voices of Enviva blog.